Fredericella sultana

Fredericella sultana is one of the most common freshwater bryozoan usually found in flowing or turbulent rivers and streams however it also inhabits ponds, lakes and canals.

Fredericella sultana is the most common host of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Infective stages of T. bryosalmonae are released from Fredericella sultana causing Proliferative Kidney Disease (PDK). PDK is an economically devastating disease of wild and farmed salmonid fish (Anderson et al., 1999; Feist et al., 2001).

Species detail

Fredricella sultanta

Fredericella sultana lophophore is circular

Like all freshwater bryozoans, Fredericella sultana forms colonies. 

Fredericella sultana colonies 

  • are composed of identical zooids
    • each zooid has a crown of feeding tentacles, the lophophore
  • have a tough chitinous outer wall
  • attach to natural and man-made submerged surfaces (Wood and Okamura, 2005). 
  • can resemble plants, as suggested by the common name for bryozoans, the ‘moss animals
  • Dark brown statoblasts retained inside branches

    Read about the form and structure of Fredericella sultana, find out its distinguishing features and learn about similar looking species.

  • Tree roots
    Distribution and ecology

    Discover the areas of the world that Fredericella sultana is known from and the types of habitat it is found in. Learn about the feeding patterns of this species.

  • Dense clumps of F. sultana growing on submerged tree roots

    Fredericella sultana forms colonies composed of identical zooids. Find out about the size and growth patterns of these colonies and zooids and learn about the lifecycle and life expectancy of this species.

  • Hatching statoblast F. sultana
    Reproduction and dispersal

    Asexual production is the main reproductive mode while sexual reproduction is rare. Find out more about the reproductive patterns of this species. Learn how Fredericella sultana achieves dispersal

  • F. sultana lophophore

    Learn about the interactions that Fredericella sultana has with other species and the diseases it can harbour.

  • Fredericella sultana

    Get reference material for Fredericella sultana.


Fredericella sultana

Fredericella sultana, a branching freshwater bryozoan.

Dark brown statoblasts retained inside branches

Dark brown statoblasts retained inside branches.

Tree roots

Tree roots are a common habitat of F. sultana.

Dense clumps of F. sultana

Dense clumps of F. sultana growing on submerged tree roots.

Hatching statoblast F. sultana

Hatching statoblast F. sultana.

F. sultana lophophore

F. sultana lophophore is circular.


Hanna Hartikainen

Bryozoa Research Assistant, Department of Zoology.

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Sac-like stages of T. bryosalmonae inside a bryozoan host
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae - 22/03/2010

Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a multicellular endoparasite known for causing proliferative kidney disease in trout and salmon, which has resulted in significant economic losses for aquaculture and has threatened wild fish populations. Find out more about Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae.